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Last updated: March 17, 2001 Unless otherwise specified; text, tables, photographs, maps and other graphics © 1999-2001 Gunnar Ljungstrand


Stereo logo

Stereo images of glaciers

Contents

  • About stereo images


  • Taking stereo images


  • Viewing stereo images


  • Positive Stereo

    Negative Stereo

  • The stereo images



  • About stereo images

    Of course three dimensions is better than two, so here is some Stereo images. How do we see three-dimensionally anyway? Since the eyes are set some 7 cm from each other they see objects from somewhat different angles. Close one of your eyes, and then the other one, and you see close objects "move" in relation to more distant ones. This effect is called Parallax and gets weaker as the distance increases; therefore we only see three-dimensionally (well) within some 25 m.

    Thus, to create three-dimensional images you must force the eyes to see different images. The best way of doing this is by a Hologram, where the pattern the reflected light creates depends on the viewing angle, but the technology to show such over the net does not exist yet. The most common way is Anaglyph images, one image in red and one in green/blue, and a pair of spectacles with tinted plastic for forcing the eyes to see only the intended image. These images can only be in B-W however. There are also spectacles for differently polarized light, or such ones that turn opaque a few tens of times a second, but they demand special display technology. Around the turn of the last century Stereoscopes were popular, devices where a lens system made sure the eyes only saw the intended image, and similar are still around.

    What I wanted, however, was a system capable of displaying color, not requiring any kind of spectacles, that could be displayed over the net on a regular monitor, and where taking your own stereo images was simple and cheap to boot. The system exists.


    Taking stereo images

    To take the images you use a perfectly standard camera. First take the Left shot, then move a suitable distance to the right and take the Right image. Use the same zoom, and try to have the same lighting conditions, aperture stop and exposure time. Center the same point, and donīt rotate the camera (around the axis of the lens). In short, try getting the shots identical, except for the lateral movement. Avoid moving targets, and if you are shooting people ask them to stand still while you get the shots.

    If you want to have a natural 3D-look you should move the camera as much sideways as you have between the eyes, that is about 7 cm. To enhance the 3D-effect it is possible to increase the distance considerably however. Once I moved some 20 m (!) to get stereo effect on some mountains several km distant. It worked perfectly, but if you move that much you must ensure that you donīt have any near foreground. Otherwise it will be beyond recognition.


    Viewing stereo images

    To watch the images in stereo you use the very same technique as for Stereograms, you know the kind of pictures with "hidden" 3D-images within. If you can see such images you use the exact same technique here. There are two ways of doing this: Positively and Negatively. For most people Positive stereo is easier to learn than Negative, and the image seems to get "magnified" somewhat. However, one big disadvantage is that you cannot use pictures wider than the distance between your eyes, some 7 cm (some people say they can manage distances larger than this, myself excluded unfortunately). Negative stereo does not have this limitation, but can be slightly harder to master.

    The small pictures in this document are intended to be viewed Positively; this will work as long as they are not displayed too large, which they wonīt be unless the monitor is set to a ridiculously low resolution compared to its size. The following table shows the minimum resolution for monitors of various sizes.

    MonitorMinimum resolution
    14"640x480
    15"640x480
    17"800x600
    19"800x600
    21"1024x768

    The larger images, to which you can click yourself, are by necessity placed to be viewed Negatively however.


    Positive Stereo

    When you watch stereo images Positively you place the Left image at left, and the Right one at right, next to each other. Then try to look "through" them, focusing the view farther away. You will see "double", but if you succeed two of the images will "fuse together" to form a three-dimensional image.

    Positive Stereo

    This may be hard to accomplish for the unpracticed person, but it is like learning to ride a bike, once you have learnt it, it sticks. When the images fuse together at first the view may be blurry, but take it easy and hold the view and it will sharpen eventually. The image seems to "hover behind" the original pictures, and as a consequence of this seems to be somewhat larger as well.


    Negative Stereo

    When you watch stereo images Negatively you place the Left image at right, and the Right one at left, next to each other. Then try to look "closer than" them, squint your eyes like when you look at the tip of your nose. You will "see double", but if you succeed two of the images will "fuse together" to form a three-dimensional image.

    Negative Stereo

    This way can be even somewhat harder to learn than the former, but it varies from person to person - some think this way is easier. When the images fuse together at first the view may be blurry, but take it easy and hold the view and it will sharpen eventually. The image seems to "hover in front of" the original pictures, and as a consequence of this seems to be somewhat smaller as well.


    The stereo images

    Ålmajalosjekna, Sulitelma

    Meltwater stream on Ålmajalosjekna, 
left Meltwater stream on Ålmajalosjekna, 
right

    Meltwater stream on Ålmajalosjekna, July 30, 1996. (138 kB)


    Sarekpaktejekna, Sarek

    Ice canyon on Sarekpaktejekna, left Ice canyon on Sarekpaktejekna, right

    Ice canyon on Sarekpaktejekna, August 6, 1998. (58 kB)


    Jåkåtjkaskajekna, Sarek

    Crevasse on 
Jåkåtjkaskajekna, left Crevasse on 
Jåkåtjkaskajekna, right

    Crevasse on Jåkåtjkaskajekna, August 3, 1998. (134 kB)


    Storsylglaciären, Jämtland

    The icefall of Storsylglaciären, 
left The icefall of Storsylglaciären, 
right

    The icefall of Storsylglaciären, August 2, 1997. (76 kB)


    Rundvassbreen, Blåmannsisen

    Rundvassbreen's tongue from N, left Rundvassbreen's tongue from N, right

    Rundvassbreen's tongue from N, July 29, 2000. (96 kB)


    Leirvassbreen, Blåmannsisen

    Crevasse on Leirvassbreen, left Crevasse on Leirvassbreen, right

    Crevasse on Leirvassbreen, July 29, 2000. (121 kB)


    Isvassbreen, Blåmannsisen

    Iceberg from Isvassbreen, left Iceberg from Isvassbreen, right

    Iceberg from Isvassbreen, July 28, 2000. (68 kB)


    Argalaijekna, Sulitjelma

    Crevasse on Argalaijekna, left Crevasse on Argalaijekna, right

    Crevasse on Argalaijekna, August 8, 1996. (97 kB)


    Flatisen, Vest-Svartisen

    Flatisen and Flatisvatnet, left Flatisen and Flatisvatnet, right

    Flatisen and Flatisvatnet, July 19, 2000. (93 kB)


    Fonndalsbreen, Vest-Svartisen

    Fonndalsbreen from N, left Fonndalsbreen from N, right

    Fonndalsbreen from N, July 23, 2000. (97 kB)


    Fonndalsbreen, Vest-Svartisen

    The steep front of Fonndalsbreen, left The steep front of Fonndalsbreen, right

    The steep front of Fonndalsbreen, July 23, 2000. (82 kB)


    Engabreen, Vest-Svartisen

    The heavily crevassed front of Engabreen, left The heavily crevassed front of Engabreen, right

    The heavily crevassed front of Engabreen, July 28, 1997. (93 kB)


    Engabreen, Vest-Svartisen

    The tongue of Engabreen from NW, left The tongue of Engabreen from NW, right

    The tongue of Engabreen from NW, July 23, 2000. (110 kB)


    Engabreen, Vest-Svartisen

    Ice towers in Engabreen, left Ice towers in Engabreen, right

    Ice towers in Engabreen, July 23, 2000. (55 kB)


    Austerdalsisen, Øst-Svartisen

    The ice front of Austerdalsisen, left The ice front of Austerdalsisen, right

    The ice front of Austerdalsisen, July 18, 2000. (95 kB)


    Mørkbekkbreen, Okstindan

    Mørkbekkbreen from N, left Mørkbekkbreen from N, right

    Mørkbekkbreen from N, July 17, 2000. (99 kB)


    Austre Okstindbreen, Okstindan

    Crevasse on Austre Okstindbreen, 
left Crevasse on Austre Okstindbreen, 
right

    Crevasse on Austre Okstindbreen, July 26, 1997. (85 kB)


    Melkevollbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    The elegant Melkevollbreen, left The elegant Melkevollbreen, right

    The elegant Melkevollbreen, June 24, 1999. (97 kB)


    Briksdalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    The crevasses of Briksdalsbreen, left The crevasses of Briksdalsbreen, right

    The crevasses of Briksdalsbreen, June 24, 1999. (114 kB)


    Briksdalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Moulin on Briksdalsbreen, left Moulin on Briksdalsbreen, right

    Moulin on Briksdalsbreen, June 24, 1999. (124 kB)


    Briksdalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Briksdalsbreen crushing forest, left Briksdalsbreen crushing forest, right

    Briksdalsbreen crushing forest, June 24, 1999. (141 kB)


    Brenndalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Brenndalsbreen from W, left Brenndalsbreen from W, right

    Brenndalsbreen from W, June 24, 1999 (139 kB)


    Brenndalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Ice blocks beneath the front of Brenndalsbreen, 
left Ice blocks beneath the front of Brenndalsbreen, 
right

    Ice blocks beneath the front of Brenndalsbreen, June 24, 1999 (120 kB)


    Kjenndalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Kjenndalsbreen from N, left Kjenndalsbreen from N, right

    Kjenndalsbreen from N, June 24, 1999 (97 kB)


    Fåbergstølsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Fåbergstølsbreen in its valley, 
left Fåbergstølsbreen in its valley, 
right

    Fabergstølsbreen in its valley, June 22, 1999 (86 kB)


    Nigardsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Nigardsbreen from E, left Nigardsbreen from E, right

    Nigardsbreen from E, June 22, 1999 (116 kB)


    Nigardsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    The front of Nigardsbreen, left The front of Nigardsbreen, right

    The front of Nigardsbreen, June 22, 1999 (113 kB)


    Nigardsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Mountain birch in front of the advancing Nigardsbreen,
left Mountain birch in front of the advancing Nigardsbreen, 
right

    Mountain birch in front of the advancing Nigardsbreen, June 22, 1999 (138 kB)


    Nigardsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Fallen down ice block before Nigardsbreen, left Fallen down ice block before Nigardsbreen, right

    Fallen down ice block before Nigardsbreen, June 22, 1999 (113 kB)


    Bergsetbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Bergsetbreen in Krundalen, left Bergsetbreen in Krundalen, right

    Bergsetbreen in Krundalen, June 22, 1999 (105 kB)


    Bergsetbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Ice formation in the front of Bergsetbreen, left Ice formation in the front of Bergsetbreen, 
right

    Ice formation in the front of Bergsetbreen, June 22, 1999 (100 kB)


    Austerdalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Austerdalsbreen with Lokebreen, Odinsbreen and 
Torsbreen, left Austerdalsbreen with Lokebreen, Odinsbreen and 
Torsbreen, right

    Austerdalsbreen with Lokebreen, Odinsbreen and Torsbreen, June 23, 1999 (98 kB)


    Langedalsbreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen, left Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen, right

    Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen, June 23, 1999 (89 kB)


    Supphellebreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen, 
left Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen, 
right

    Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen, June 23, 1999 (117 kB)


    Bøyabreen, Jostedalsbreen

    Bøyabreen and Brevatnet, left Bøyabreen and Brevatnet, right

    Bøyabreen and Brevatnet, June 23, 1999 (109 kB)


    Rembesdalsskåki, Hardangerjøkulen

    Rembesdalsskåki and Demmevatnet from 
N, left Rembesdalsskåki and Demmevatnet from 
N, right

    Rembesdalsskåki and Demmevatnet from N, September 30, 2000 (52 kB)


    Rembesdalsskåki, Hardangerjøkulen

    Crevasses in Rembesdalsskåki, 
left Crevasses in Rembesdalsskåki, 
right

    Crevasses in Rembesdalsskåki, September 30 2000 (103 kB)


    Rembesdalsskåki, Hardangerjøkulen

    The ice cliff of Rembesdalsskåki, 
left The ice cliff of Rembesdalsskåki,
right

    The ice cliff of Rembesdalsskåki, September 30, 2000 (70 kB)


    Ramnabergsbreen, Hardangerjøkulen

    Moulin on Ramnabergsbreen, left Moulin on Ramnabergsbreen, right

    Moulin on Ramnabergsbreen, September 30, 2000 (92 kB)


    Blåisen, Hardangerjøkulen

    Blåisen from N, left Blåisen from N, right

    Blåisen from N, September 30, 2000 (79 kB)


    Austre Leirbotnskåki, Hardangerjøkulen

    Austre Leirbotnskåki from 
SE, left Austre Leirbotnskåki from 
SE, right

    Austre Leirbotnskåki from SE, October 1, 2000 (73 kB)


    Bondhusbreen, Sør-Folgefonna

    The tongue of Bondhusbreen, left The tongue of Bondhusbreen, right

    The tongue of Bondhusbreen, June 21, 1999 (84 kB)


    Øvre Buarbreen, Sør-Folgefonna

    The ice front of Øvre Buarbreen, left The ice front of Øvre Buarbreen, right

    The ice front of Øvre Buarbreen, June 20, 1999 (88 kB)


    Nedre Buarbreen, Sør-Folgefonna

    The ice front of Nedre Buarbreen, left The ice front of Nedre Buarbreen, right

    The ice front of Nedre Buarbreen, June 20, 1999 (120 kB)



    Start page Top
    Top of
    document
    Stereo
    Stereo
    images
    Site map
    Site
    map
    Email
    Email the
    author
    Copyleft
    Copyleft
    information
    På svenska
    Detta dokument
    på svenska
    Last updated: March 17, 2001 Unless otherwise specified; text, tables, photographs, maps and other graphics © 1999-2001 Gunnar Ljungstrand