The larger glaciers of
The larger glaciers
The larger glaciers
of Breheimen proper
|Last updated: March 17, 2001||Unless otherwise specified; text, tables, photographs, maps and other graphics © 1999-2001 Gunnar Ljungstrand|
|Images with size information (xx kB) leads to the corresponding image in 4 x better resolution.|
Jostedalsbreen is Norway´s and continental Europe´s largest glacier; a complex system of ice domes sending down mighty ice streams into the valleys on all sides, often in tremendous icefalls. According to measurements the ice in some places is more than 600 m thick. In the northern part the glacier has more alpine character, with many peaks and ridges jutting up through the ice. There lies also the highest peak on Jostedalsbreen, Lodalskåpa (2083 m), "the Westland Queen".
Jostedalsbreen has a rather maritime climate, with large amounts of snow in winter. The latest decades there has fallen so much that many outlets, in particular short and steep ones, have advanced significantly.
With Southern Jostedalsbreen I here mean the part of Jostedalsbreen that drains towards Veitastrond and Fjærland. Other smaller glaciers in this area are included here as well.
|#||Name||Type||Area (km2)||Length (km)||Lowest point (m)||Highest point (m)||Height difference (m)|
|1.||Jostedalsbreen (Southern part)||Glacier complex||117.16||22.1||60||1915||1855|
|1a.||of which Snøskredbreen||Ice cap||0.91||1.5||525||1780||1255|
|1b.||of which Søre Røykjedalsbreen||Ice cap||1.33||1.4||1210||1720||510|
|1c.||of which Nordre Røykjedalsbreen||Cirque glacier||3.77||3.1||1270||1695||425|
|1d.||of which Austerdalsfjellbreen||Ice cap||1.24||1.4||1430||1665||235|
|1e.||of which Austerdalsbreen||Ice cap||27.90||9.0||385||1915||1530|
|1f.||of which Skyttarpiggbreen||Ice cap||3.56||1.9||1085||1670||585|
|1g.||of which Langedalsbreen||Ice cap||10.28||4.6||530||1875||1345|
|1h.||of which Bingsbreen||Ice cap||6.86||5.1||395||1810||1415|
|1i.||of which Bjørnakyrkjebreen||Ice cap||7.83||6.2||300||1765||1465|
|1j.||of which Nordre Opptaksbreen||Ice cap||3.59||3.8||675||1715||1040|
|1k.||of which Søre Opptaksbreen||Ice cap||4.78||2.3||1000||1685||685|
|1l.||of which Nystølsbreen||Ice cap||2.98||2.2||960||1685||725|
|1m.||of which Snauedalsbreen||Ice cap||3.23||1.8||1240||1685||445|
|1n.||of which Vetle Suphellebreen||Valley glacier||7.86||5.5||750||1715||965|
|1o.||of which Supphellebreen||Valley glacier||13.54||9.6||60||1735||1675|
|1p.||of which Bøyabreen||Ice cap||14.79||7.2||145||1735||1590|
|1q.||of which Vetlebreen||Ice cap||2.71||2.7||995||1650||655|
|2a.||of which Snauedalsbreen||Cirque glacier||1.19||1.2||1155||1610||455|
|2b.||of which Ljøteskredbreen||Ice cap||0.96||1.2||1220||1540||320|
|2c.||of which Fessenipbreen||Cirque glacier||0.87||1.0||1360||1620||260|
|3a.||of which Stølsbotnbreen||Ice cap||0.95||1.5||1360||1675||315|
|3b.||of which Ryssenipbreen||Ice cap||3.86||3.4||1155||1540||385|
|3c.||of which Nordre Kvitlabreen||Cirque glacier||1.03||1.8||1140||1570||430|
|3d.||of which Søre Kvitlabreen||Ice cap||3.07||2.4||1230||1675||445|
|4a.||of which Nordre Høgafjellbreen||Ice cap||0.55||1.1||1165||1540||375|
|4b.||of which Søre Høgafjellbreen||Ice cap||0.63||1.3||1210||1540||330|
|5a.||of which Fessabreen||Ice cap||1.33||2.1||1260||1585||325|
|5b.||of which Tuftabreen||Ice cap||2.38||2.0||1030||1585||555|
|5c.||of which Langedalsbreen||Ice cap||1.16||1.2||1360||1585||225|
|7a.||of which Bukkabreen||Ice cap||0.94||1.4||1295||1560||265|
|7b.||of which Lysebreen||Ice cap||1.15||1.7||1280||1605||325|
|8a.||of which Vetlebotnbreen||Ice cap||1.13||1.1||1200||1570||370|
|8b.||of which Skjerdingbreen||Ice cap||0.68||1.1||1130||1590||460|
|9a.||of which Styggebotnbreen||Ice cap||0.95||1.5||1180||1605||425|
|9b.||of which Gunvordalsbreen||Cirque glacier||1.75||1.4||995||1565||570|
|9c.||of which Myrdalsbreen||Ice cap||1.70||1.1||1270||1560||290|
|9d.||of which Friksdalsbreen||Ice cap||1.10||1.3||1220||1525||305|
|10a.||of which Fjerdevassbreen||Ice cap||1.83||2.0||1260||1565||305|
|10b.||of which Trollavassbreen||Ice cap||2.95||2.8||1080||1565||485|
|10c.||of which Blånipebreen||Ice cap||1.54||1.3||1170||1525||355|
|10d.||of which Tverrdalsbreen||Ice cap||2.18||1.4||1100||1565||465|
|10e.||of which Bjørnalægbreen||Ice cap||0.95||1.0||1300||1540||240|
|11a.||of which Breibotsbreen||Ice cap||1.16||1.0||1380||1615||235|
|11b.||of which Skålebotnbreen||Ice cap||2.21||1.6||1110||1615||505|
|11c.||of which Grøningstølsbreen||Ice cap||1.47||1.8||1160||1485||325|
|11d.||of which Jølstrabotnbreen||Ice cap||5.31||3.2||1050||1520||470|
|11e.||of which Svartevassbreen||Ice cap||1.91||2.7||1005||1520||515|
|11f.||of which Vetlefjordbreen||Ice cap||2.84||3.1||960||1615||655|
|12a.||of which Trollakyrkjebreen||Ice cap||0.50||1.1||1205||1505||300|
|12b.||of which Trollabotnbreen||Cirque glacier||0.97||1.3||1055||1505||450|
Jostedalsbreen (Southern part) (117.16 km2) is the part of Jostedalsbreen which drains southward, towards Veitastrond and Fjærland. The area is of classic ice cap type, and there are a rather substantial number of smaller ice caps in the surroundings. During the peak of the Little Ice Age in the middle of the 18th century the outlets advanced a lot, destroying both farmland and meadows. The highest point on this part of Jostedalsbreen is Kvitekoll (1915 m). (There is another, lower Kvitekoll too).
This part of Jostedalsbreen contains the perhaps most spectacular outlet glacier of them all, the fantastic Austerdalsbreen. The outlets in this part are in general very steep and have large and high icefalls. Supphellebreen has the steepest of them all, and is the lowest reaching glacier in southern Norway too - to only 60 m asl. Other prominent outlets are Langedalsbreen and Bøyabreen.
Snøskredbreen (0.91 km2) is a small ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen, on the west side of Kvitekoll (1780 m). Ice avalanches down from it and form not only one, but two regenerated glaciers, the lower one at such a low altitude as 525 m!
Søre Røykjedalsbreen (1.33 km2) is a small ice cap in Jostedalsbreen north of Kvitekoll (1780 m).
Nordre Røykjedalsbreen (3.77 km2) is a fairly large cirque glacier in Jostedalsbreen, at the SW side of Austerdalsfjellet.
Austerdalsfjellbreen (1.24 km2), a small ice cap, lies on the SW side of Austerdalsfjellet at the edge of Jostedalsbreen.
Austerdalsbreen (27.90 km2) is the third largest outlet glacier in Jostedalsbreen, and probably the very most spectacular. The lower part consists of a 3.5 km long, rather flat and crevasse-poor ice tongue in a narrow valley with more than 1000 m high, vertical mountain walls on each side. The glacier tongue has a pattern of arcuate lines, so-called ogives (seen best from some distance up), and is split in the middle by a large medial moraine. Ogives are a kind of "annual rings", which form below icefalls, where the ice coming down the icefall in summer becomes dirtier and of a darker color than the ice coming down in winter mixed with snow.On Austerdalsbreen: Lokebreen, Odinsbreen, and Torsbreen, June 23, 1999. (72 kB)
Austerdalsbreen is feeded by three colossal icefalls with their own names; Torsbreen, Odinsbreen, and Lokebreen. Of these Lokebreen contributes only insignificantly, and the two others with roughly half each. Lokebreen earlier was continuos all the way down with the lower Austerdalsbreen, but during the general retreat in the 20th century it receded back above the mountain side, and was no longer a part of Austerdalsbreen. However, during the 1990:s it has readvanced considerably, and now it displays a 1 km wide and 500 m high icefall. It is not (yet) continuos with the lower glacier, but a lot of ice avalanches down and forms a large avalanche cone at the edge of lower Austerdalsbreen. Another hanging lobe from the ice cap high above forms another fairly large avalanche cone right opposite Lokebreen. Stereo image of Austerdalsbreen with Lokebreen, Odinsbreen and Torsbreen.The large medial moraine on Austerdalsbreen, June 23, 1999. (88 kB)
Odinsbreen is the left one of the two large icefalls; it is like an enormous cascade of ice, 400 m wide and 800 m high. This icefall has a relatively even slope and width and emanates power - it is reminiscent of Bergsetbreen. Its neighbor, Torsbreen, is of another kind. It is up to 900 m wide, 700 m high, even steeper than Odinsbreen, and radiates untamed savagery. The ice cascades down in a narrow cleft and at the same time is twisted around like a breaking wave. Here ice avalanches go often, particularly from a large protruding tongue above the cleft. The glacier was named after this, after Tor (Thor), the god of thunder. The upper parts of Austerdalsbreen, above the icefalls, are relatively even.The icefall of Torsbreen, June 23, 1999. (89 kB)
During the Little Ice Age Austerdalsbreen too advanced much; as its most extended it stood in a position roughly in the middle of Austerdalen, some 2.6 km from where the front is today. I have no data about damage caused by Austerdalsbreen, but doubtlessly some pasture, if not farmland, must have disappeared. During the 19th century Austerdalsbreen retreated only slightly, and it was first well into the 20th century when it, like other glaciers, started retreating rapidly. During the middle of the 20th century the glacier disappeared behind a mountain ridge in the valley bend, so that you can no longer see it until you pass the bend and are almost at it. Since Austerdalsbreen has a quite large tongue it took some time before the increased snow volumes in the last years of the century came into effect, but now the snout of Austerdalsbreen has begun advancing again.The icefall of Odinsbreen, June 23, 1999. (88 kB)
Austerdalsbreen has an unusually large, some 200 m wide, area covered by debris at its snout. It can not be just a "push moraine" - a wall of rock and gravel which the glacier pushes ahead of itself, bulldozer-like, when it advances - it is too large for this. Probably it is a slab of earlier stagnant, debris-covered ice, which had been disconnected from the tongue during the earlier retreat but had not had time to melt away, but which now is pushed forward by the pressure from the yet again advancing ice behind.The icefall of Lokebreen, June 23, 1999. (68 kB)
Austerdalsbreen was the last of the great outlet glaciers in Jostedalsbreen to be discovered. Its tongue was known of course, but no one had passed the valley bend, so the inner part with the icefalls was a white spot on the map. However, on August 11, 1894 the Englishmen William Cecil Slingsby and Cyril Todd together with the mountain guide Mikkel Mundal started up Austerdalen from Tungestølen. They rounded the bend and entered what Slingsby called "the finest ice-scenery in Europe". The three of them made their way to the foot of the icefalls, and with rather much difficulty managed to climb up the mountain ridge between Lokebreen and Odinsbreen. Well up they saw tracks in the snow from Kristian Bing, a lawyer from Bergen, who on the same day had come from the other direction, climbing down to Austerdalsbreen, and with whom they had to share the glory. Then they continued across the snow plateau to Olden. Today this is considered the very finest of all Jostedalsbreen crossings, and an extremely demanding hike. On the other hand it takes just a little more than a hour´s walk from Tungestølen to reach the snout of Austerdalsbreen.
Skyttarpiggbreen (3.56 km2) is an ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen. It has a small icefall hanging high above Austerdalen. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was a part of Austerdalsbreen.
Langedalsbreen (10.28 km2) is a rather large and wide ice cap in Jostedalsbreen, on the north side of Langedalen. It flows down in a 3 km wide and 1300 m high icefall, even though it is slightly less steep than others. This is the least known of the Great Icefalls on Jostedalsbreen, something which is probably due to its rather remote location. Some distance down the icefall splits into two tongues; a somwhat smaller in the west and a larger in the east. The western one ends at a precipice forming a small avalanche cone in the valley below.Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen from S, June 23, 1999. (103 kB)
During the Little Ice Age Langedalsbreen extended far out into Langedalen; then it joined with Bingsbreen, Bjørnakyrkjebreen, and Nordre Opptaksbreen in a large ice stream. At that time the ice front stood as much as 3.5 km farther out than now. Then it retreated slowly but surely during the 18th and 19th centuries. As late as in the 1930:s a common ice tongue remained in the valley. However, then they split and receded up the mountain sides. Stereo image of Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen.Langedalsbreen from S, June 23, 1999. (103 kB)
The intense melting during the 20th century made Langedalsbreen retreat so much that it ended a considerable distance up the mountain side. In the last years of the century larger amounts of snow fell though, which caused both tongues to advance down the mountain sides again. The eastern tongue has advanced some 700 m in horizontal and as much as 300 m in vertical, now standing not far from the valley bottom. From Nystølen a good path leads into Langedalen; it takes some 2 hours to get all the way in.
Bingsbreen (6.86 km2) is a mid-sized outlet of Jostedalsbreen at the end of Langedalen. Its upper parts lie where Jostedalsbreen is at its narrowest, and there is a famous wind formation up there, Bings gryte. It is a large, 200 m long and 40 m deep hole in the ice, created by special wind conditions. In summer meltwater collects there, forming a small ice lake. Then Bingsbreen cascades down into a funnel-shaped gorge in a 1.8 km wide and 800 m high icefall. Down there a narrow ice tongue forms, extending down into the innermost of Langedalen. The latest years this glacier has advanced some 600 m. During the Little Ice Age Bingsbreen was a part of the then very large Langedalsbreen.
Bjørnakyrkjebreen (7.83 km2) is a pretty large outlet glacier from Jostedalsbreen on the SW side of Langedalen. From an undulating accumulation area up at Grensevarden (1766 m) it cascades down into a funnel-like cleft, in a 200 to 900 m wide and 800 m high icefall. When the glacier was at its smallest earlier during the 20th century it had retreated up the entire lower cleft, and had only a small avalanche cone below. The general glacier increase during the last years of the century have resulted in Bjørnakyrkjebreen advancing though, and it is continuos all the way down again. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was a part of the large Langedalsbreen.
Nordre Opptaksbreen (3.59 km2) is a small outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen on the SW side of Langedalen. It starts at Mikkelvarden (1716 m) and glides down eastward towards Langedalen. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was continuos with the much larger Langedalsbreen down in the valley. Since then it has retreated much up the mountain side, but in the end of the 20th century it advanced 800 m and 300 m vertically.
Søre Opptaksbreen (4.78 km2) is an outlet from Jostedalsbreen which starts up below Opptakshaugane (1687 m). It sends two tongues down towards Langedalen, and the eastern branch has a 400 m high icefall. During the Little Ice Age the tongues stretched some 1 km farther down towards the valley, and 400 m vertically.
Nystølsbreen (2.98 km2), a small outlet of Jostedalsbreen, lies just above Nystølen. It has a few small icefalls.
Snauedalsbreen (3.23 km2) is an ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen, on the north side of Snauedalen.
Vetle Supphellebreen (7.86 km2), a rather large outlet glacier in Jostedalsbreen, lies at the end of Supphelledalen. The glacier, which is also called Veslebreen is a fairly flat valley glacier east of Supphellenipa (1731 m), whose tongue glides out across the the edge towards the valley, where a 500 m high icefall is formed. During the Little Ice Age the ice front stood some 900 m farther out, down in the bottom of the valley. This glacier too has begun advancing again, after the great retreat in the 20th century.
Supphellebreen (13.54 km2) is a long and rather flat valley glacier in southernmost Jostedalsbreen. It starts up to the west of Supphellenipa (1731 m) and glides southward at an even slope, until it comes down east of Kvanneholtnipa (1640 m). There it spreads out in a large, 2 km wide, almost horizontal area, called Flatbreen. Below Flatbreen the ice is concentrated once more in a stream flowing down towards Flatbrehytta, which is built on a very large lateral moraine from the Little Ice Age . Inside the moraines there is a small lake in which the glacier calves.Supphellebreen from Fjellstølen, June 23, 1999. (71 kB)
However, most of the ice turns to the side across the edge towards Supphelledalen, where it forms a 700 m wide and 400 m high icefall. Then it becomes even steeper, the icefall ending in several "fingers" above a sheer precipice, where the ice avalanches down 400 m more onto Nedre Supphellebreen, a regenerated glacier reaching down to just 60 m asl! Here many ice avalanches go down. When the glaciers were as smallest during the 20th century only a small avalanche cone existed here, but since then the ice supply have increased and the regenerated glacier reformed.The icefall of Supphellebreen, September 15, 1989. (60 kB)
During the Little Ice Age Nedre Supphellebreen was so much larger that it was continuos all the way up. The tongue reached some 900 m farther down the valley, and in addition blocked the entire valley, forming an ice-dammed lake at the northeast side, which should have caused "jøkulhlaups" now and then. A road leads up to Fjellstølen, just next to the glacier, and from Flatbrehytta you can easily get up on Jostedalsbreen. During three periods between 1964 and 1982 NVE performed mass balance measurements here.Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen, June 23, 1999. (83 kB)
Stereo image of unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen.
Bøyabreen (14.79 km2) is a large outlet from southernmost Jostedalsbreen. Its upper part is a relatively even depression slowly gliding southwards, with just a few steeper areas. When the ice reaches the precipice towards south and Bøyadalen however, it cascades down into one of the very steepest icefalls on Jostedalsbreen; it is 700 m wide and 1000 m high.Bøyabreen from S, June 23, 1999. (71 kB)
The bottommost part of the ice tongue is continuos with the icefall only in its eastern side; the rest of it ends at a mountain precipice where the ice avalanches crash down and cover the fairly dirty tongue with fresh, pure ice. The glacier tongue ends with a large meltwater tunnel in a small lake, Brevatnet, at only 145 m asl. Many small icebergs float in the lake, ice blocks both from calving and directly from avalanches.Bøyabreen and Brevatnet, June 23, 1999. (84 kB)
Earlier during the 20th century Bøyabreen had retreated so much that the tongue ended at the precipice 350 m above the lake, and there was only a small avalanche cone below. In the 1980:s the ice supply started increasing though, and the avalanche cone grew. However, it wasn´t until the 1990:s the glacier fused together with the lower part and extended out into the lake; in total the glacier tongue advanced some 300 m. During the very latest years Bøyabreen has actually retreated somewhat. Stereo image of Bøyabreen and Brevatnet.Icebergs in Brevatnet, June 23, 1999. (77 kB)
During the peak of the Little Ice Age in the mid-18th century Bøyabreen stretched considerably farther down Bøyadalen; the ice front stood some 2.3 km farther down the valley than today. Still some time into the 20th century the lake had not yet been uncovered from the ice. A road leads in to Brevasshytta, next to the glacier. If Bøyabreen was to begin advancing again the houses are in danger, since they lie only 500 m from the ice front.Freshly fallen down ice on Bøyabreen, June 23, 1999. (90 kB)
Vetlebreen (2.71 km2) is a small outlet from Jostedalsbreen on the NW side of Bøyadalen. It ends high up in the mountain side in a 300 m high icefall.
Fessebreen (3.02 km2) is a small glacier complex south of Snauedalen. During the Little Ice Age it was continuos with the larger Svardalsbreen to the south.
Snauedalsbreen (1.19 km2) is a cirque glacier in Fessebreen, on the north side of Fessenipa (1640 m).
Ljøteskredbreen (0.96 km2) is an ice cap in the eastern part of Fessebreen.
Fessenipbreen (0.87 km2), an ice cap in the southern part of Fessebreen, lies on the NW side of Svardalen..
Svardalsbreen (8.91 km2) is an ice cap on the east side of Supphelledalen. During the Little Ice Age it also comprised the small Fessebreen a small distance to the north.
Stølsbotnbreen (0.95 km2) is an ice cap in western Svardalsbreen, to the north of Fremsta Ryssenipa (1685 m).
Ryssenipbreen (3.86 km2) is an ice cap in Svardalsbreen which flows down towards northeast, in the direction of Svardalen. Now the tongue ends above the precipice towards the valley, but during the Little Ice Age it cascaded down in a large icefall and formed a glacier tongue down in Svardalen. Then Nordre Kvitlabreen too was part of this ice stream.
Nordre Kvitlabreen (1.03 km2) is a cirque glacier in the eastern part of Svardalsbreen.
Søre Kvitlabreen (3.07 km2), an ice cap in the southern part of Svardalsbreen, lies north of Kvitladalen.
Høgafjellbreen (1.18 km2), a small glacier complex, lies between Svardalen and Eldedalen.
Nordre Høgafjellbreen (0.55 km2) is the northern part of Høgafjellbreen.
Søre Høgafjellbreen (0.63 km2), the southern part of Høgafjellbreen, lies on the north side of Eldedalen.
Steindalsbreen (5.67 km2) is an ice cap east of Fjærland and southwest of Eldedalen.
Fessabreen (1.33 km2) is an ice cap in western Steindalsbreen.
Tuftabreen (2.38 km2), the largest part of Steindalsbreen, lies east of Steindalsnipa (1585 m) and has an ice tongue flowing down into Tuftabotn in a 400 m high icefall.
Langedalsbreen (1.96 km2) is an ice cap in the southern part of Steindalsbreen.
Tuftanovibreen (1.23 km2), an ice cap on the east side of Tuftanovi (1643 m), lies south of Eldedalen. During the Little Ice Age it was continuos with Storebukkbreen.
Storebukkbreen (2.09 km2) is a small glacier complex south of Eldedalen, which during the Little Ice Age was continuos with Tuftanovibreen.
Bukkabreen (0.94 km2) is the northern part of Storebukkbreen, south of Eldedalen.
Lysebreen (1.15 km2) is the southern part of Storebukkbreen. It is called Kjerringbreen as well.
Frudalsbreen (1.81 km2), a small glacier complex, lies between Fjærlandsfjorden and Sogndalsdalen.
Vetlebotnbreen (0.68 km2) is a small cirque glacier in Frudalsbreen, on the north side of Frudalshesten (1598 m).
Skjerdingbreen (1.13 km2) is an ice cap on the east side of Frudalsbreen.
Voggebreen (5.50 km2) is a complicated glacier complex east of the middle part of Fjærlandsfjorden.
Styggebotnbreen (0.95 km2) is an ice cap in northern Voggebreen. It lies on the NE side of Ryssebotrana (1604 m).
Gunvordalsbreen (1.75 km2) is a steep cirque glacier in the northeastern part of Voggebreen, above the inner Gunvordalen.
Myrdalsbreen (1.70 km2) is an ice cap in the southeastern part of Voggebreen, west of Myrdalen.
Friksdalsbreen (1.10 km2), an ice cap in southwestern Voggebreen, hangs above Friksdalen.
Trogebreen (9.45 km2) is a fairly large ice cap west of Bøyadalen. During the Little Ice Age it, as well as its larger neighbor Jostefonna, was continuos with the giant Jostedalsbreen.
Fjerdevassbreen (1.83 km2) is a complex ice cap at the west side of Trogebreen, above Fjerdevatnet.
Trollavassbreen (2.95 km2), an ice cap in the northern part of Trogebreen, glides down towards Trollavatnet.
Blånipebreen (1.54 km2) is an ice cap in easternmost Trogebreen. For some reason it is not plotted on the latest map.
Tverrdalsbreen (2.18 km2) is an ice cap in eastern Trogebreen, east of Troget (1566 m). It looms high above the precipices of Tverrdalen.
Bjørnalægbreen (0.95 km2) is a small ice cap in southernmost Trogebreen, north of Mundalen.
Jostefonna (14.90 km2) is a pretty large ice cap between Haukedalen and Fjærlandsfjorden. Earlier, during the Little Ice Age it was continuos with the smaller neighbor Trogebreen, and via it with the huge Jostedalsbreen. Since 1996 NVE has performed mass balance measurements on the glacier. Compared to 1963 Jostefonna has increased slightly in volume, distributed on a fairly large increase in the upper parts, and a continued decrease in the lower parts. Thus the glacier is not in balance, and unless the climate turns much warmer one could expect the tongues to begin readvancing soon.
Breibotsbreen (1.16 km2) is a small ice cap in westernmost Jostefonna, on the west side of Sundfjordbjørnen (1615 m).
Skålebotnbreen (2.21 km2), an ice cap in western Jostefonna, glides down towards Grøningstølsdalen from Sundfjordbjørnen.
Grøningstølsbreen (1.47 km2) is a small ice cap in northern Jostefonna.
Jølstrabotnbreen (5.31 km2) is a fairly significant ice cap in eastern Jostefonna. It has a wide tongue which sends down small fingers towards north and south.
Svartevassbreen (1.91 km2) is a small valley glacier in southern Jostefonna. It calves in a small lake with a 400 m wide ice cliff, and is still retreating.
Vetlefjordbreen (2.84 km2), a valley glacier in southern Jostefonna, sends down a tongue with a 200 m high icefall in a small valley. There the tongue calves in a small lake with a 400 m wide ice cliff. This tongue is still retreating slowly.
Melsnipebreen (1.47 km2) is a small glacier complex between Jorddalsdalen and Vetlefjorddalen.
Trollakyrkjebreen (0.50 km2), an ice cap, is the northern part of Melsnipebreen, north of Melsnipa (1547 m).
Trollabotnbreen (0.97 km2) is a cirque glacier in the eastern part of Melsnipebreen, west of Jorddalsdalen.
The larger glaciers of
The larger glaciers
The larger glaciers
of Breheimen proper
|Last updated: March 17, 2001|
|Images with size information (xx kB) leads to the corresponding image in 4 x better resolution.|