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Last updated: March 17, 2001 Unless otherwise specified; text, tables, photographs, maps and other graphics © 1999-2001 Gunnar Ljungstrand
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The larger glaciers of Southern Jostedalsbreen

Austerdalsbreen with the icefalls 
Odinsbreen and Torsbreen Austerdalsbreen with the icefalls Odinsbreen and Torsbreen, June 23, 1999. (67 kB)

Jostedalsbreen is Norway´s and continental Europe´s largest glacier; a complex system of ice domes sending down mighty ice streams into the valleys on all sides, often in tremendous icefalls. According to measurements the ice in some places is more than 600 m thick. In the northern part the glacier has more alpine character, with many peaks and ridges jutting up through the ice. There lies also the highest peak on Jostedalsbreen, Lodalskåpa (2083 m), "the Westland Queen".

Jostedalsbreen has a rather maritime climate, with large amounts of snow in winter. The latest decades there has fallen so much that many outlets, in particular short and steep ones, have advanced significantly.

With Southern Jostedalsbreen I here mean the part of Jostedalsbreen that drains towards Veitastrond and Fjærland. Other smaller glaciers in this area are included here as well.

Table over the larger glaciers of Southern Jostedalsbreen with basic data

#Name Type Area (km2) Length (km) Lowest point (m) Highest point (m) Height difference (m)
Jostedalsbreen Glacier complex 533.48 60.4 60 1980 1920
1.Jostedalsbreen (Southern part) Glacier complex 117.16 22.1 60 1915 1855
1a.of which Snøskredbreen Ice cap 0.91 1.5 525 1780 1255
1b.of which Søre Røykjedalsbreen Ice cap 1.33 1.4 1210 1720 510
1c.of which Nordre Røykjedalsbreen Cirque glacier 3.77 3.1 1270 1695 425
1d.of which Austerdalsfjellbreen Ice cap 1.24 1.4 1430 1665 235
1e.of which Austerdalsbreen Ice cap 27.90 9.0 385 1915 1530
1f.of which Skyttarpiggbreen Ice cap 3.56 1.9 1085 1670 585
1g.of which Langedalsbreen Ice cap 10.28 4.6 530 1875 1345
1h.of which Bingsbreen Ice cap 6.86 5.1 395 1810 1415
1i.of which Bjørnakyrkjebreen Ice cap 7.83 6.2 300 1765 1465
1j.of which Nordre Opptaksbreen Ice cap 3.59 3.8 675 1715 1040
1k.of which Søre Opptaksbreen Ice cap 4.78 2.3 1000 1685 685
1l.of which Nystølsbreen Ice cap 2.98 2.2 960 1685 725
1m.of which Snauedalsbreen Ice cap 3.23 1.8 1240 1685 445
1n.of which Vetle Suphellebreen Valley glacier 7.86 5.5 750 1715 965
1o.of which Supphellebreen Valley glacier 13.54 9.6 60 1735 1675
1p.of which Bøyabreen Ice cap 14.79 7.2 145 1735 1590
1q.of which Vetlebreen Ice cap 2.71 2.7 995 1650 655
2.Fessebreen Glacier complex 3.02 2.8 1155 1620 465
2a.of which Snauedalsbreen Cirque glacier 1.19 1.2 1155 1610 455
2b.of which Ljøteskredbreen Ice cap 0.96 1.2 1220 1540 320
2c.of which Fessenipbreen Cirque glacier 0.87 1.0 1360 1620 260
3.Svardalsbreen Glacier complex 8.91 4.9 1140 1675 535
3a.of which Stølsbotnbreen Ice cap 0.95 1.5 1360 1675 315
3b.of which Ryssenipbreen Ice cap 3.86 3.4 1155 1540 385
3c.of which Nordre Kvitlabreen Cirque glacier 1.03 1.8 1140 1570 430
3d.of which Søre Kvitlabreen Ice cap 3.07 2.4 1230 1675 445
4.Høgafjellbreen Glacier complex 1.18 1.1 1165 1540 375
4a.of which Nordre Høgafjellbreen Ice cap 0.55 1.1 1165 1540 375
4b.of which Søre Høgafjellbreen Ice cap 0.63 1.3 1210 1540 330
5.Steindalsbreen Glacier complex 5.67 3.9 1030 1585 555
5a.of which Fessabreen Ice cap 1.33 2.1 1260 1585 325
5b.of which Tuftabreen Ice cap 2.38 2.0 1030 1585 555
5c.of which Langedalsbreen Ice cap 1.16 1.2 1360 1585 225
6.Tuftanovibreen Ice cap 1.23 1.2 1315 1640 325
7.Storebukkbreen Glacier complex 2.09 2.5 1280 1605 325
7a.of which Bukkabreen Ice cap 0.94 1.4 1295 1560 265
7b.of which Lysebreen Ice cap 1.15 1.7 1280 1605 325
8.Frudalsbreen Glacier complex 1.81 2.5 1130 1590 460
8a.of which Vetlebotnbreen Ice cap 1.13 1.1 1200 1570 370
8b.of which Skjerdingbreen Ice cap 0.68 1.1 1130 1590 460
9.Voggebreen Glacier complex 5.50 5.1 995 1605 610
9a.of which Styggebotnbreen Ice cap 0.95 1.5 1180 1605 425
9b.of which Gunvordalsbreen Cirque glacier 1.75 1.4 995 1565 570
9c.of which Myrdalsbreen Ice cap 1.70 1.1 1270 1560 290
9d.of which Friksdalsbreen Ice cap 1.10 1.3 1220 1525 305
10.Trogebreen Glacier complex 9.45 6.2 1080 1565 485
10a.of which Fjerdevassbreen Ice cap 1.83 2.0 1260 1565 305
10b.of which Trollavassbreen Ice cap 2.95 2.8 1080 1565 485
10c.of which Blånipebreen Ice cap 1.54 1.3 1170 1525 355
10d.of which Tverrdalsbreen Ice cap 2.18 1.4 1100 1565 465
10e.of which Bjørnalægbreen Ice cap 0.95 1.0 1300 1540 240
11.Jostefonna Glacier complex 14.90 7.5 960 1615 655
11a.of which Breibotsbreen Ice cap 1.16 1.0 1380 1615 235
11b.of which Skålebotnbreen Ice cap 2.21 1.6 1110 1615 505
11c.of which Grøningstølsbreen Ice cap 1.47 1.8 1160 1485 325
11d.of which Jølstrabotnbreen Ice cap 5.31 3.2 1050 1520 470
11e.of which Svartevassbreen Ice cap 1.91 2.7 1005 1520 515
11f.of which Vetlefjordbreen Ice cap 2.84 3.1 960 1615 655
12.Melsnipebreen Glacier complex 1.47 2.4 1055 1505 450
12a.of which Trollakyrkjebreen Ice cap 0.50 1.1 1205 1505 300
12b.of which Trollabotnbreen Cirque glacier 0.97 1.3 1055 1505 450
Total 171.59


1. Jostedalsbreen (Southern part)

Jostedalsbreen (Southern part) (117.16 km2) is the part of Jostedalsbreen which drains southward, towards Veitastrond and Fjærland. The area is of classic ice cap type, and there are a rather substantial number of smaller ice caps in the surroundings. During the peak of the Little Ice Age in the middle of the 18th century the outlets advanced a lot, destroying both farmland and meadows. The highest point on this part of Jostedalsbreen is Kvitekoll (1915 m). (There is another, lower Kvitekoll too).

This part of Jostedalsbreen contains the perhaps most spectacular outlet glacier of them all, the fantastic Austerdalsbreen. The outlets in this part are in general very steep and have large and high icefalls. Supphellebreen has the steepest of them all, and is the lowest reaching glacier in southern Norway too - to only 60 m asl. Other prominent outlets are Langedalsbreen and Bøyabreen.

1a. Snøskredbreen

Snøskredbreen (0.91 km2) is a small ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen, on the west side of Kvitekoll (1780 m). Ice avalanches down from it and form not only one, but two regenerated glaciers, the lower one at such a low altitude as 525 m!

1b. Søre Røykjedalsbreen

Søre Røykjedalsbreen (1.33 km2) is a small ice cap in Jostedalsbreen north of Kvitekoll (1780 m).

1c. Nordre Røykjedalsbreen

Nordre Røykjedalsbreen (3.77 km2) is a fairly large cirque glacier in Jostedalsbreen, at the SW side of Austerdalsfjellet.

1d. Austerdalsfjellbreen

Austerdalsfjellbreen (1.24 km2), a small ice cap, lies on the SW side of Austerdalsfjellet at the edge of Jostedalsbreen.

1e. Austerdalsbreen

The tongue of Austerdalsbreen from S The tongue of Austerdalsbreen from S, June 23, 1999. (177 kB)

Austerdalsbreen (27.90 km2) is the third largest outlet glacier in Jostedalsbreen, and probably the very most spectacular. The lower part consists of a 3.5 km long, rather flat and crevasse-poor ice tongue in a narrow valley with more than 1000 m high, vertical mountain walls on each side. The glacier tongue has a pattern of arcuate lines, so-called ogives (seen best from some distance up), and is split in the middle by a large medial moraine. Ogives are a kind of "annual rings", which form below icefalls, where the ice coming down the icefall in summer becomes dirtier and of a darker color than the ice coming down in winter mixed with snow.

On Austerdalsbreen: Lokebreen, Odinsbreen, and 
Torsbreen On Austerdalsbreen: Lokebreen, Odinsbreen, and Torsbreen, June 23, 1999. (72 kB)

Austerdalsbreen is feeded by three colossal icefalls with their own names; Torsbreen, Odinsbreen, and Lokebreen. Of these Lokebreen contributes only insignificantly, and the two others with roughly half each. Lokebreen earlier was continuos all the way down with the lower Austerdalsbreen, but during the general retreat in the 20th century it receded back above the mountain side, and was no longer a part of Austerdalsbreen. However, during the 1990:s it has readvanced considerably, and now it displays a 1 km wide and 500 m high icefall. It is not (yet) continuos with the lower glacier, but a lot of ice avalanches down and forms a large avalanche cone at the edge of lower Austerdalsbreen. Another hanging lobe from the ice cap high above forms another fairly large avalanche cone right opposite Lokebreen. Stereo image of Austerdalsbreen with Lokebreen, Odinsbreen and Torsbreen.

The large medial moraine on Austerdalsbreen The large medial moraine on Austerdalsbreen, June 23, 1999. (88 kB)

Odinsbreen is the left one of the two large icefalls; it is like an enormous cascade of ice, 400 m wide and 800 m high. This icefall has a relatively even slope and width and emanates power - it is reminiscent of Bergsetbreen. Its neighbor, Torsbreen, is of another kind. It is up to 900 m wide, 700 m high, even steeper than Odinsbreen, and radiates untamed savagery. The ice cascades down in a narrow cleft and at the same time is twisted around like a breaking wave. Here ice avalanches go often, particularly from a large protruding tongue above the cleft. The glacier was named after this, after Tor (Thor), the god of thunder. The upper parts of Austerdalsbreen, above the icefalls, are relatively even.

The icefall of Torsbreen The icefall of Torsbreen, June 23, 1999. (89 kB)

During the Little Ice Age Austerdalsbreen too advanced much; as its most extended it stood in a position roughly in the middle of Austerdalen, some 2.6 km from where the front is today. I have no data about damage caused by Austerdalsbreen, but doubtlessly some pasture, if not farmland, must have disappeared. During the 19th century Austerdalsbreen retreated only slightly, and it was first well into the 20th century when it, like other glaciers, started retreating rapidly. During the middle of the 20th century the glacier disappeared behind a mountain ridge in the valley bend, so that you can no longer see it until you pass the bend and are almost at it. Since Austerdalsbreen has a quite large tongue it took some time before the increased snow volumes in the last years of the century came into effect, but now the snout of Austerdalsbreen has begun advancing again.

The icefall of Odinsbreen The icefall of Odinsbreen, June 23, 1999. (88 kB)

Austerdalsbreen has an unusually large, some 200 m wide, area covered by debris at its snout. It can not be just a "push moraine" - a wall of rock and gravel which the glacier pushes ahead of itself, bulldozer-like, when it advances - it is too large for this. Probably it is a slab of earlier stagnant, debris-covered ice, which had been disconnected from the tongue during the earlier retreat but had not had time to melt away, but which now is pushed forward by the pressure from the yet again advancing ice behind.

The icefall of Lokebreen The icefall of Lokebreen, June 23, 1999. (68 kB)

Austerdalsbreen was the last of the great outlet glaciers in Jostedalsbreen to be discovered. Its tongue was known of course, but no one had passed the valley bend, so the inner part with the icefalls was a white spot on the map. However, on August 11, 1894 the Englishmen William Cecil Slingsby and Cyril Todd together with the mountain guide Mikkel Mundal started up Austerdalen from Tungestølen. They rounded the bend and entered what Slingsby called "the finest ice-scenery in Europe". The three of them made their way to the foot of the icefalls, and with rather much difficulty managed to climb up the mountain ridge between Lokebreen and Odinsbreen. Well up they saw tracks in the snow from Kristian Bing, a lawyer from Bergen, who on the same day had come from the other direction, climbing down to Austerdalsbreen, and with whom they had to share the glory. Then they continued across the snow plateau to Olden. Today this is considered the very finest of all Jostedalsbreen crossings, and an extremely demanding hike. On the other hand it takes just a little more than a hour´s walk from Tungestølen to reach the snout of Austerdalsbreen.

1f. Skyttarpiggbreen

Skyttarpiggbreen (3.56 km2) is an ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen. It has a small icefall hanging high above Austerdalen. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was a part of Austerdalsbreen.

1g. Langedalsbreen

Langedalsbreen from Tungestølen Langedalsbreen from Tungestølen, June 22, 1999. (69 kB)

Langedalsbreen (10.28 km2) is a rather large and wide ice cap in Jostedalsbreen, on the north side of Langedalen. It flows down in a 3 km wide and 1300 m high icefall, even though it is slightly less steep than others. This is the least known of the Great Icefalls on Jostedalsbreen, something which is probably due to its rather remote location. Some distance down the icefall splits into two tongues; a somwhat smaller in the west and a larger in the east. The western one ends at a precipice forming a small avalanche cone in the valley below.

Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen from S Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen from S, June 23, 1999. (103 kB)

During the Little Ice Age Langedalsbreen extended far out into Langedalen; then it joined with Bingsbreen, Bjørnakyrkjebreen, and Nordre Opptaksbreen in a large ice stream. At that time the ice front stood as much as 3.5 km farther out than now. Then it retreated slowly but surely during the 18th and 19th centuries. As late as in the 1930:s a common ice tongue remained in the valley. However, then they split and receded up the mountain sides. Stereo image of Bingsbreen and Langedalsbreen.

Langedalsbreen from S Langedalsbreen from S, June 23, 1999. (103 kB)

The intense melting during the 20th century made Langedalsbreen retreat so much that it ended a considerable distance up the mountain side. In the last years of the century larger amounts of snow fell though, which caused both tongues to advance down the mountain sides again. The eastern tongue has advanced some 700 m in horizontal and as much as 300 m in vertical, now standing not far from the valley bottom. From Nystølen a good path leads into Langedalen; it takes some 2 hours to get all the way in.

1h. Bingsbreen

The tongue of Bingsbreen from SE The tongue of Bingsbreen from SE, June 23, 1999. (101 kB)

Bingsbreen (6.86 km2) is a mid-sized outlet of Jostedalsbreen at the end of Langedalen. Its upper parts lie where Jostedalsbreen is at its narrowest, and there is a famous wind formation up there, Bings gryte. It is a large, 200 m long and 40 m deep hole in the ice, created by special wind conditions. In summer meltwater collects there, forming a small ice lake. Then Bingsbreen cascades down into a funnel-shaped gorge in a 1.8 km wide and 800 m high icefall. Down there a narrow ice tongue forms, extending down into the innermost of Langedalen. The latest years this glacier has advanced some 600 m. During the Little Ice Age Bingsbreen was a part of the then very large Langedalsbreen.

1i. Bjørnakyrkjebreen

Bjørnakyrkjebreen (7.83 km2) is a pretty large outlet glacier from Jostedalsbreen on the SW side of Langedalen. From an undulating accumulation area up at Grensevarden (1766 m) it cascades down into a funnel-like cleft, in a 200 to 900 m wide and 800 m high icefall. When the glacier was at its smallest earlier during the 20th century it had retreated up the entire lower cleft, and had only a small avalanche cone below. The general glacier increase during the last years of the century have resulted in Bjørnakyrkjebreen advancing though, and it is continuos all the way down again. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was a part of the large Langedalsbreen.

1j. Nordre Opptaksbreen

Nordre Opptaksbreen and Bjørnakyrkjebreen from 
E Nordre Opptaksbreen and Bjørnakyrkjebreen from E, June 23, 1999. (68 kB)

Nordre Opptaksbreen (3.59 km2) is a small outlet glacier of Jostedalsbreen on the SW side of Langedalen. It starts at Mikkelvarden (1716 m) and glides down eastward towards Langedalen. During the Little Ice Age this glacier was continuos with the much larger Langedalsbreen down in the valley. Since then it has retreated much up the mountain side, but in the end of the 20th century it advanced 800 m and 300 m vertically.

1k. Søre Opptaksbreen

Søre Opptaksbreen (4.78 km2) is an outlet from Jostedalsbreen which starts up below Opptakshaugane (1687 m). It sends two tongues down towards Langedalen, and the eastern branch has a 400 m high icefall. During the Little Ice Age the tongues stretched some 1 km farther down towards the valley, and 400 m vertically.

1l. Nystølsbreen

Nystølsbreen from NE Nystølsbreen from NE, June 23, 1999. (78 kB)

Nystølsbreen (2.98 km2), a small outlet of Jostedalsbreen, lies just above Nystølen. It has a few small icefalls.

1m. Snauedalsbreen

Snauedalsbreen (3.23 km2) is an ice cap at the edge of Jostedalsbreen, on the north side of Snauedalen.

1n. Vetle Supphellebreen

Vetle Supphellebreen (7.86 km2), a rather large outlet glacier in Jostedalsbreen, lies at the end of Supphelledalen. The glacier, which is also called Veslebreen is a fairly flat valley glacier east of Supphellenipa (1731 m), whose tongue glides out across the the edge towards the valley, where a 500 m high icefall is formed. During the Little Ice Age the ice front stood some 900 m farther out, down in the bottom of the valley. This glacier too has begun advancing again, after the great retreat in the 20th century.

1o. Supphellebreen

Supphellebreen from Fjellstølen Supphellebreen from Fjellstølen, September 15, 1989. (86 kB)

Supphellebreen (13.54 km2) is a long and rather flat valley glacier in southernmost Jostedalsbreen. It starts up to the west of Supphellenipa (1731 m) and glides southward at an even slope, until it comes down east of Kvanneholtnipa (1640 m). There it spreads out in a large, 2 km wide, almost horizontal area, called Flatbreen. Below Flatbreen the ice is concentrated once more in a stream flowing down towards Flatbrehytta, which is built on a very large lateral moraine from the Little Ice Age . Inside the moraines there is a small lake in which the glacier calves.

Supphellebreen from Fjellstølen Supphellebreen from Fjellstølen, June 23, 1999. (71 kB)

However, most of the ice turns to the side across the edge towards Supphelledalen, where it forms a 700 m wide and 400 m high icefall. Then it becomes even steeper, the icefall ending in several "fingers" above a sheer precipice, where the ice avalanches down 400 m more onto Nedre Supphellebreen, a regenerated glacier reaching down to just 60 m asl! Here many ice avalanches go down. When the glaciers were as smallest during the 20th century only a small avalanche cone existed here, but since then the ice supply have increased and the regenerated glacier reformed.

The icefall of Supphellebreen The icefall of Supphellebreen, September 15, 1989. (60 kB)

During the Little Ice Age Nedre Supphellebreen was so much larger that it was continuos all the way up. The tongue reached some 900 m farther down the valley, and in addition blocked the entire valley, forming an ice-dammed lake at the northeast side, which should have caused "jøkulhlaups" now and then. A road leads up to Fjellstølen, just next to the glacier, and from Flatbrehytta you can easily get up on Jostedalsbreen. During three periods between 1964 and 1982 NVE performed mass balance measurements here.

Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen Unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen, June 23, 1999. (83 kB)

Stereo image of unstable ice bridge on lower Supphellebreen.

1p. Bøyabreen

Bøyabreen from S Bøyabreen from S, September 15, 1989. (52 kB)

Bøyabreen (14.79 km2) is a large outlet from southernmost Jostedalsbreen. Its upper part is a relatively even depression slowly gliding southwards, with just a few steeper areas. When the ice reaches the precipice towards south and Bøyadalen however, it cascades down into one of the very steepest icefalls on Jostedalsbreen; it is 700 m wide and 1000 m high.

Bøyabreen från S Bøyabreen from S, June 23, 1999. (71 kB)

The bottommost part of the ice tongue is continuos with the icefall only in its eastern side; the rest of it ends at a mountain precipice where the ice avalanches crash down and cover the fairly dirty tongue with fresh, pure ice. The glacier tongue ends with a large meltwater tunnel in a small lake, Brevatnet, at only 145 m asl. Many small icebergs float in the lake, ice blocks both from calving and directly from avalanches.

Bøyabreen och Brevatnet Bøyabreen and Brevatnet, June 23, 1999. (84 kB)

Earlier during the 20th century Bøyabreen had retreated so much that the tongue ended at the precipice 350 m above the lake, and there was only a small avalanche cone below. In the 1980:s the ice supply started increasing though, and the avalanche cone grew. However, it wasn´t until the 1990:s the glacier fused together with the lower part and extended out into the lake; in total the glacier tongue advanced some 300 m. During the very latest years Bøyabreen has actually retreated somewhat. Stereo image of Bøyabreen and Brevatnet.

Icebergs in Brevatnet Icebergs in Brevatnet, June 23, 1999. (77 kB)

During the peak of the Little Ice Age in the mid-18th century Bøyabreen stretched considerably farther down Bøyadalen; the ice front stood some 2.3 km farther down the valley than today. Still some time into the 20th century the lake had not yet been uncovered from the ice. A road leads in to Brevasshytta, next to the glacier. If Bøyabreen was to begin advancing again the houses are in danger, since they lie only 500 m from the ice front.

Freshly fallen down ice on Bøyabreen Freshly fallen down ice on Bøyabreen, June 23, 1999. (90 kB)

1q. Vetlebreen

Vetlebreen from SE Vetlebreen from SE, September 15, 1989. (49 kB)

Vetlebreen (2.71 km2) is a small outlet from Jostedalsbreen on the NW side of Bøyadalen. It ends high up in the mountain side in a 300 m high icefall.


2. Fessebreen

Fessebreen (3.02 km2) is a small glacier complex south of Snauedalen. During the Little Ice Age it was continuos with the larger Svardalsbreen to the south.

2a. Snauedalsbreen

Snauedalsbreen (1.19 km2) is a cirque glacier in Fessebreen, on the north side of Fessenipa (1640 m).

2b. Ljøteskredbreen

Ljøteskredbreen (0.96 km2) is an ice cap in the eastern part of Fessebreen.

2c. Fessenipbreen

Fessenipbreen (0.87 km2), an ice cap in the southern part of Fessebreen, lies on the NW side of Svardalen.

.

3. Svardalsbreen

Svardalsbreen (8.91 km2) is an ice cap on the east side of Supphelledalen. During the Little Ice Age it also comprised the small Fessebreen a small distance to the north.

3a. Stølsbotnbreen

Stølsbotnbreen (0.95 km2) is an ice cap in western Svardalsbreen, to the north of Fremsta Ryssenipa (1685 m).

3b. Ryssenipbreen

Ryssenipbreen (3.86 km2) is an ice cap in Svardalsbreen which flows down towards northeast, in the direction of Svardalen. Now the tongue ends above the precipice towards the valley, but during the Little Ice Age it cascaded down in a large icefall and formed a glacier tongue down in Svardalen. Then Nordre Kvitlabreen too was part of this ice stream.

3c. Nordre Kvitlabreen

Nordre Kvitlabreen (1.03 km2) is a cirque glacier in the eastern part of Svardalsbreen.

3d. Søre Kvitlabreen

Søre Kvitlabreen (3.07 km2), an ice cap in the southern part of Svardalsbreen, lies north of Kvitladalen.


4. Høgafjellbreen

Høgafjellbreen (1.18 km2), a small glacier complex, lies between Svardalen and Eldedalen.

4a. Nordre Høgafjellbreen

Nordre Høgafjellbreen (0.55 km2) is the northern part of Høgafjellbreen.

4b. Søre Høgafjellbreen

Søre Høgafjellbreen (0.63 km2), the southern part of Høgafjellbreen, lies on the north side of Eldedalen.


5. Steindalsbreen

Steindalsbreen (5.67 km2) is an ice cap east of Fjærland and southwest of Eldedalen.

5a. Fessabreen

Fessabreen (1.33 km2) is an ice cap in western Steindalsbreen.

5b. Tuftabreen

Tuftabreen (2.38 km2), the largest part of Steindalsbreen, lies east of Steindalsnipa (1585 m) and has an ice tongue flowing down into Tuftabotn in a 400 m high icefall.

5c. Langedalsbreen

Langedalsbreen (1.96 km2) is an ice cap in the southern part of Steindalsbreen.


6. Tuftanovibreen

Tuftanovibreen (1.23 km2), an ice cap on the east side of Tuftanovi (1643 m), lies south of Eldedalen. During the Little Ice Age it was continuos with Storebukkbreen.


7. Storebukkbreen

Storebukkbreen (2.09 km2) is a small glacier complex south of Eldedalen, which during the Little Ice Age was continuos with Tuftanovibreen.

7a. Bukkabreen

Bukkabreen (0.94 km2) is the northern part of Storebukkbreen, south of Eldedalen.

7b. Lysebreen

Lysebreen (1.15 km2) is the southern part of Storebukkbreen. It is called Kjerringbreen as well.


8. Frudalsbreen

Frudalsbreen (1.81 km2), a small glacier complex, lies between Fjærlandsfjorden and Sogndalsdalen.

8a. Vetlebotnbreen

Vetlebotnbreen (0.68 km2) is a small cirque glacier in Frudalsbreen, on the north side of Frudalshesten (1598 m).

8b. Skjerdingbreen

Skjerdingbreen (1.13 km2) is an ice cap on the east side of Frudalsbreen.


9. Voggebreen

Voggebreen (5.50 km2) is a complicated glacier complex east of the middle part of Fjærlandsfjorden.

9a. Styggebotnbreen

Styggebotnbreen (0.95 km2) is an ice cap in northern Voggebreen. It lies on the NE side of Ryssebotrana (1604 m).

9b. Gunvordalsbreen

Gunvordalsbreen (1.75 km2) is a steep cirque glacier in the northeastern part of Voggebreen, above the inner Gunvordalen.

9c. Myrdalsbreen

Myrdalsbreen (1.70 km2) is an ice cap in the southeastern part of Voggebreen, west of Myrdalen.

9d. Friksdalsbreen

Friksdalsbreen (1.10 km2), an ice cap in southwestern Voggebreen, hangs above Friksdalen.


10. Trogebreen

Trogebreen (9.45 km2) is a fairly large ice cap west of Bøyadalen. During the Little Ice Age it, as well as its larger neighbor Jostefonna, was continuos with the giant Jostedalsbreen.

10a. Fjerdevassbreen

Fjerdevassbreen (1.83 km2) is a complex ice cap at the west side of Trogebreen, above Fjerdevatnet.

10b. Trollavassbreen

Trollavassbreen (2.95 km2), an ice cap in the northern part of Trogebreen, glides down towards Trollavatnet.

10c. Blånipebreen

Blånipebreen (1.54 km2) is an ice cap in easternmost Trogebreen. For some reason it is not plotted on the latest map.

10d. Tverrdalsbreen

Tverrdalsbreen (2.18 km2) is an ice cap in eastern Trogebreen, east of Troget (1566 m). It looms high above the precipices of Tverrdalen.

10e. Bjørnalægbreen

Bjørnalægbreen (0.95 km2) is a small ice cap in southernmost Trogebreen, north of Mundalen.


11. Jostefonna

Jostefonna (14.90 km2) is a pretty large ice cap between Haukedalen and Fjærlandsfjorden. Earlier, during the Little Ice Age it was continuos with the smaller neighbor Trogebreen, and via it with the huge Jostedalsbreen. Since 1996 NVE has performed mass balance measurements on the glacier. Compared to 1963 Jostefonna has increased slightly in volume, distributed on a fairly large increase in the upper parts, and a continued decrease in the lower parts. Thus the glacier is not in balance, and unless the climate turns much warmer one could expect the tongues to begin readvancing soon.

11a. Breibotsbreen

Breibotsbreen (1.16 km2) is a small ice cap in westernmost Jostefonna, on the west side of Sundfjordbjørnen (1615 m).

11b. Skålebotnbreen

Skålebotnbreen (2.21 km2), an ice cap in western Jostefonna, glides down towards Grøningstølsdalen from Sundfjordbjørnen.

11c. Grøningstølsbreen

Grøningstølsbreen (1.47 km2) is a small ice cap in northern Jostefonna.

11d. Jølstrabotnbreen

Jølstrabotnbreen (5.31 km2) is a fairly significant ice cap in eastern Jostefonna. It has a wide tongue which sends down small fingers towards north and south.

11e. Svartevassbreen

Svartevassbreen (1.91 km2) is a small valley glacier in southern Jostefonna. It calves in a small lake with a 400 m wide ice cliff, and is still retreating.

11f. Vetlefjordbreen

Vetlefjordbreen (2.84 km2), a valley glacier in southern Jostefonna, sends down a tongue with a 200 m high icefall in a small valley. There the tongue calves in a small lake with a 400 m wide ice cliff. This tongue is still retreating slowly.


12. Melsnipebreen

Melsnipebreen (1.47 km2) is a small glacier complex between Jorddalsdalen and Vetlefjorddalen.

12a. Trollakyrkjebreen

Trollakyrkjebreen (0.50 km2), an ice cap, is the northern part of Melsnipebreen, north of Melsnipa (1547 m).

12b. Trollabotnbreen

Trollabotnbreen (0.97 km2) is a cirque glacier in the eastern part of Melsnipebreen, west of Jorddalsdalen.


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Last updated: March 17, 2001 Unless otherwise specified; text, tables, photographs, maps and other graphics © 1999-2001 Gunnar Ljungstrand
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